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roi louis xviii

Louise consented, but the Bourbons were forced to assume pseudonyms. Louis XVIII appears briefly in the novel The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexandre Dumas. [26], On 5 May 1778, Dr. Lassonne, Marie Antoinette's private physician, confirmed her pregnancy. Marie Joséphine (as she was known in France) was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy (later King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia), and his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. France had to pay for an army to occupy her, for at least five years, at a cost of 150 million francs per year. Louis did not stay in Sweden for long, and arrived in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England, in November 1807. [59] Louis XVIII moved to Blankenburg in Duchy of Brunswick [Braunschweig] after his departure from Verona. In 1796 and 1803, Louis also used the diaries of Louis XVI's final attendants in the same way. It was rumoured that he inhaled snuff from her breasts,[129] which earned her the nickname of tabatière (snuffbox). Français ! Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, the comtesse de Marsan, as he was her favourite out of all her charges (Louis Stanislas' brothers and sisters). Ses opposants demeurent trop faibles et divisés pour menacer en quoi que ce soit la position royale. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony. ... de Navarre de France, Charles-Philippe Charles X Roi de France de France, Vénérable Marie Adélaïde Clotilde Xavière Clotilde Regina di S... Provence - Louis Stanislas Xavier Comte de Provence, Saint Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France, German: Ludvig, King of France & Co-Prince of Andorra, Pouvoir exécutif de la France (1789-1815), Kings and Queens of France and Their Spouses, Maria Josepha von Sachsen, dauphine de France, Marie-Josephine de Savoie, reine titulaire de France, Louis Joseph Xavier de Bourbon, duc de Bourgogne, Charles X King of France & Co-Prince of Andorra & Count of Artois, Louis Louis XVIII Stanislas-Xavier Roi de France et de Navarre de France (born Bourbon). [114] Louis XVIII deplored such illegal acts, but vehemently supported the prosecution of those marshals that helped Napoleon I in the Hundred Days. The Tsar also guaranteed Louis' safety and bestowed on him a generous pension,[65] though later discontinued payment. Louise consented, but the Bourbons were forced to assume pseudonyms. [31], In 1780, Anne Nompar de Caumont, Countess of Balbi, entered the service of Marie Joséphine. Vers le milieu d’octobre 1807, depuis Göteborg en Suède, il avertit le comte d’Artois de sa prochaine arrivée, ce qui n’était pas pour lui plaire. His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. [84], Napoleon's senate called Louis XVIII to the throne on the condition that he would accept the new constitution, which entailed recognition of the Republic and the Empire, a bicameral parliament elected every year, and the tri-colour flag of the aforementioned regimes. [127], In 1818, the Chambers passed a military law that increased the size of the army by over 100,000. He was interred at the Basilica of St Denis, the necropolis of French kings. Louis XVIII chose the Duke of Richelieu to be his new Prime Minister. [2] Although the monarchy had been disestablished, Louis XVIII succeeded his nephew, Louis XVII, as titular King, when the latter died in prison in June 1795.[3]. The Declaration of Hartwell was even more liberal than his Declaration of 1805, asserting that those who had served Napoleon or the Republic would not suffer repercussions for their acts, and that the original owners of the Biens nationaux (lands confiscated from the nobility and clergy during the Revolution) would be compensated for their losses. Louis XVIII deceived his niece by telling her that her parents' last wishes were for her to marry Louis Antoine, and Marie-Thérèse duly agreed to her uncle-king's wishes. [74] The King of Prussia issued a proclamation saying that Louis XVIII would have to leave Prussian territory, which meant leaving Warsaw. He resigned from his post in August and was replaced by the Swiss magnate Jacques Necker. Expenditure on the army was slashed in the 1815 budget — in 1814, the military had accounted for 55% of government spending. Porté par les Coalisés, le 24 avril 1814, il débarque à Calais. The senatorial constitution was burned in a theatre in royalist Bordeaux, and the Municipal Council of Lyon voted for a speech that defamed the senate. Louis XVIII was trying desperately to display to the world a united family front. [13] At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was obese and waddled instead of walked. Numista does not buy or sell coins or metal. [103] Other leaders, most prominently Alexander I of Russia, debated whether in the case of a second victory over the French Empire, the First Prince of the Blood Louis Philippe d'Orléans should be proclaimed king instead of Louis XVIII. Popular vengeance led to barbarous acts against some of these officials. Louis Stanislas would join the other princes-in-exile at Coblenz soon after his escape. Louis XVIII. [88] Louis responded with the Charter of 1814, which included many progressive provisions: freedom of religion, a legislature composed of the Chamber of Deputies[89] and the Chamber of Peers,[90] a press that would enjoy a degree of freedom, and a provision that the Biens nationaux[91] would remain in the hands of their current owners. He was succeeded by his youngest brother, the Count of Artois, as Charles X.[133]. The Battle of Waterloo put a definite end to Napoleon Bonaparte's attempt to return to France and thus secured the Bourbon restoration, On 26 February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte escaped his island prison of Elba and embarked for France. He and his Controller-General of Finance Baron Louis were determined not to let the exchequer fall into deficit (there was a 75 million franc debt inherited from Napoleon I), and took fiscal measures to ensure this.

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